2 edition of Understanding Cereal Crops II: Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Millet/Tp#55 found in the catalog.
Understanding Cereal Crops II: Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Millet/Tp#55
Roy M. Stephen
by Vita Pubns
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach billion by Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in alone, Africa imported million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role. Growing maize. Maize is the third most important cereal crop species in the world (after wheat and. rice) and is grown across a wide range of climates, but mainly in the warmer temperate regions and humid subtropics. Maize has multiple uses, including for human foods, animal feeds, and the manufacture of pharmaceutical and industrial products.
The world’s major cereal crops, wheat, maize, and rice, are not well adapted to such conditions. In contrast, the alternative grains sorghum and millets; the pseudocereals amaranth and quinoa; and pulses such as cowpeas, chickpeas, and pigeon peas, which originated in less developed parts of the world, are naturally better adapted to. Maize is normally cultivated in limited areas, close to homesteads and oft en used for green consumption. In some locations such as Upper Nile, maize is cultivated in larger plots, instead of sorghum, provided the soil is suitable. Minor cereal crops such as bulrush millet, fi nger millet and upland rice are also cultivated in certain locations.
• The need for crops, such as sweetpotato, that are more drought tolerant than maize. • In some countries, such as Malawi, the government has actively promoted the crop to smallholder farmers as part of the strategy to diversify away from maize following devastating drought in the s. In Malawi, annual consumption has. Cereal Crop Growth Stages, including jointing, booting, grain fill stages, and the Zadok Scale Grain Types: wheat, barley, sorghum, oats, rice, corn, canola, pulses, and more Production Systems: crop rotation, cover crops, crop islands Grain Growing and Processing: Infrastructure and Machinery Equipment Requirements.
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Stephen et al., In: Understanding cereal crops II: maize, sorghum, Rice and millet. Technical Paper Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Arlington, USA. maize, rice, barley, and oats, and most of the minor Sorghum as well, such as rye, common millet, finger millet, teff, and many others that are less familiar.
It also includes such economically important species as sugar cane and sorghum. Understanding the grass family is thus central to understanding the crops that feed the by: Poaceae (/ p oʊ ˈ eɪ s i aɪ /) or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture.
The latter are commonly referred to collectively as grass. With around genera and aro species, the Poaceae is the Clade: Tracheophytes. Sorghum is an important food staple in many arid parts of the world due to its drought tolerance; it often grows where other cereal crops fail.
Maize is a major cereal grain that is grown worldwide and ranks second only to wheat in total production area and second to rice in total amount produced (Farnham et al., ).Cited by: Rice is the third most widely grown cereal crop after wheat and maize and is the staple food of more than half of the world's population  .
China is one of the major rice-producing. The grass family includes s species, and it encompasses tremendous morphological, physiological, ecological, and genetic diversity. The phylogeny of the family is becoming increasingly well understood. There were two major radiations of grasses, an early diversification leading to the subfamilies Pooideae, Bambusoideae, and Oryzoideae, and a later one leading to Panicoideae.
Maize (/ m eɪ z / MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taino: mahiz), also known as corn (American English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico ab years ago.
The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Cereals, including rice, maize, wheat, barley, rye, sorghum, oats and millets, have constituted the staple food of the world since their domestication ∼10 years ago.
Cereals are also the most important group of cultivated plants for food production and acreage covered, providing >60% of the calories and proteins in our daily diet. Cereal grains have been the principal component of human diet for thousands of years and have played a major role in shaping human civilization.
Around the world, rice, wheat, and maize, and to a lesser extent, sorghum and millets, are important staples critical to daily survival of billions of people. More than 50% of world daily caloric intake is derived directly from cereal grain. The major part of the world’s food supply depends on the production of cereal crops such as rice, maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, oat, and millet.
These crops are constantly jeopardized by biotic stressors such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or herbivores leading to severe yield losses and therefore to eminent economic problems. In this review, we highlight the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cereal crops including rice, wheat, maize, and sorghum to improve these crops for better yield and quality.
Since cereal crops supply a major source of food to world populations, their improvement using recent genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9 is timely and crucial. Cereals are the edible seeds or grains of the grass family, Gramineae. A number of cereals are grown in different countries, including rye, oats, barley, maize, triticale, millet and sorghum.
On a worldwide basis, wheat and rice are the most important crops, accounting for over 50% of the world's cereal production. among the most important cereal crops either particularly Brazilian sugar cane varieties, but also in rice, maize, and sorghum.
However, although the endophytic diazotrophs are held to be the. Sorghum is a relatively less researched crop than other cereals such as wheat, maize, rice and barley. It is a C 4 plant with an excellent daily growth rate and biomass (> g m-2).
Sorghum is an often cross-pollinated crop with % cross pollination depending. Crop production is quite diversified. Cash crops such as cotton and groundnuts are grown in the up-land areas and rice in lowland, riverine areas (rain-fed swamps or under irrigation) for both subsistence and cash.
Other principal subsistence cereal crops grown are maize, sorghum and millet. Table - 6: Range of characters as per PPV & FR Act Crop No. of characters Characters with * mark Wheat 33 20 Rice 30 5 Sunflower 40 13 Peas 58 27 Maize 31 ( as per UPOV) 8 (16) Onion 27 12 * Mandatory characters to record.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important grain crop in South Africa and is produced throughout the country under diverse environments. See fuller discussion under “Local business environment” heading. Successful maize production depends on the correct application of production inputs that will sustain the environment as well as agricultural production.
Although both maize and sorghum are C 4 plants, maize is physiologically more efficient at using N (more yield per unit N uptake) than most other cereal crops (Greenwood et al., ). A tremendous amount of research over the years has led to more efficient N uptake and use in maize than in other cereals, and the genetic gains in maize have.
Some cereal grains still have floral coverings adhering to the grain even after threshing. Such is the case of paddy rice covered with husks (glumes). These cereal grains are consequently called "dressed" ones.
On the contrary, cereal grains without husks (maize, sorghum, wheat) are called "bare" cereal grains. These are consequently more. Cereal/grain infrastructure and machinery requirements Wheat, triticale, spelt, barley, oats, rye.
Maize, Sorghum, millet Rice Pulse crops Pseudo cereals Processing grains for human consumption Grains for livestock consumption. Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel.
We present an initial analysis of the ∼megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome.The most important cereal crop staples worldwide, such as maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and rice (Oryza sativa), are all contained within the grass family.
We have taken advantage of the resources available for maize, an important crop staple in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, to explore those.However, VRN2 transcription is also promoted under long days, and this aspect of its regulation, as well as its repression of flowering, appears to be conserved in other members of the grass BOP clade (e.g.
rice) and the PACMAD clade (e.g. sorghum and maize; Hung et al., ; Murphy et al., ; Woods et al., ; Xu and Chong, ).